Do big balls make for bad dads?

Do big balls make for bad dads?

 

 

 

 

 

Do big balls make for bad dads? 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do big balls make for bad dads?

 

A new study suggests that men with larger testes are more built for a mating effort strategy, and as a consequence, are less built for nurturing children. 
A US study measuring fathering habits and testicle size suggested that bigger may not be better when it comes to the day-to-day raising of small children.
The research involved 70 US men of varying ethnicities – most were Caucasian, five were Asian and 15 were African-American. All were the fathers of children aged one to two.
The larger the volume of their testes, the less the men were involved in daily parenting activities like changing diapers, said the study by researchers at Emory University in Georgia.
In comparison, men with smaller testes showed more nurturing activity in the brain when shown pictures of their children, and also were more involved in their children’s upbringing, according to surveys answered separately by both the fathers and their female partners.
All the men in the study were aged 21-55 and lived with the biological mothers of their children. Most were married.
“I wouldn’t want to say that men with large testes are always bad fathers, but our data show a tendency for them to be less involved in things like changing diapers, bathing children, preparing meals, taking them to the doctor and things like that,” said lead author James Rilling, an associate professor of anthropology.
The study sought to test an evolutionary theory that holds that people and animals are either built to breed or to nurture.
The findings support the notion that human beings have a limited amount of energy to invest in reproductive efforts – so either they put energy into producing offspring or into raising it.
“If you invest more energy in parenting, you have less available for mating and vice versa,” explained Rilling.
Since the testes are where sperm is made, and their size can be linked to the amount produced, the researchers said their study is unique and the first of its kind.
Previous studies have shown a link between high testosterone levels and lower parental involvement as well as divorce and infidelity. The Emory team also analysed testosterone levels and found the same inverse relationship to parental involvement in their study.
“Other people have looked at testosterone and parental behaviour, but as far as we know, we are the first to look at testes size and parental behaviour and we think we are getting at something different,” said Rilling.
“We are suggesting that men with larger testes are more built for a mating effort strategy and as a consequence are less built for investing in children.”
Researchers used functional MRI scans to analyse brain activity when the men were shown pictures of their toddlers and also of strangers’ children.
To assess the men’s daily parenting involvement with their young children, scientists asked the men and their female partners to separately fill out questionnaires.
The volume of the testes was measured in a voluntary MRI scan, to which 55 of the 70 men agreed.
Still, the researchers could not say for sure whether testes size caused the difference in fathering behaviour, or if perhaps the act of becoming a father might have caused the testes to shrink in some men.
Urologist Joseph Aluka, who was not involved in the research, said he commonly sees men with smaller testes in a certain context.
“The guy who comes in with smaller testes is more likely to have greater difficulty with getting his wife pregnant,” Aluka, an assistant professor at New York University Urology Associates, told AFP.
If such men end up being more involved as parents, “maybe these guys struggled to have kids and appreciate the experience a little bit more,” Aluka said.
“I wouldn’t be surprised if just a few participants in this study fundamentally affected their data because it is a small study,” said Aluka, describing the findings as “a stretch.”
The study appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. – AFP Relaxnews

Do big balls make for bad dads?

Do big balls make for bad dads? 

 

 

Testicle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

File:Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular size.jpg

File:Human testicles 3.jpg

Testicle size ‘link to father role’

Family
A link between the size of a father’s testicles and how active he is in bringing up his children has been suggested by scientists.

Researchers at Emory University, US, said those with smaller testicles were more likely to be involved with nappy changing, feeding and bath time.
They also found differences in brain scans of fathers looking at images of their child, linked to testicle size.
But other factors, such as cultural expectations, also played a role.
Levels of promiscuity and testicle size are strongly linked in animals, those with the largest pair tending to mate with more partners.
The researchers were investigating an evolutionary theory about trade-offs between investing time and effort in mating or putting that energy into raising children. The idea being that larger testicles would suggest greater commitment to creating more children over raising them.
The study, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, looked at the relationship between testicle size and fatherhood in 70 men who had children between the ages of one and two.
The team at Emory University in Atlanta performed brain scans while the men were shown pictures of their children.
It showed those with smaller testicles tended to have a greater response in the reward area of the brain than those with a larger size.
MRI scans showed a three-fold difference between the volumes of the smallest and largest testicles in the group.
Those at the smaller end of the spectrum were also more likely, according to interviews with the man and the mother, to be more active in parenting duties.
One of the researchers, Dr James Rilling, told the BBC: “It tells us some men are more naturally inclined to care-giving than others, but I don’t think that excuses other men. It just might require more effort for some than others.”
The exact nature of any link is not clear.
The researchers believe the size of the testicles, probably through the hormone testosterone, is affecting behaviour. But it is not clear if the process of having a baby may have some effect on the father.
“We know, for instance, that testosterone levels go down when men become involved fathers,” said Dr Rilling.
Further studies, involving analysing the size before and after becoming a father, are still needed.
Cultural and societal expectations on the role of the father are also not accounted for in the study.
All of the men were from the Atlanta area so the relative impact of society and biology has not been measured.

File:Testicles 02.jpg

Brain scans suggest testicle size inversely linked to motivation to nurture

The study found that smaller testicles were associated with higher nurturing-related brain activity, suggesting that men with smaller testicles were more biologically motivated to care for their children.
The study found that smaller testicles were associated with higher nurturing-related brain activity, suggesting that men with smaller testicles were more biologically motivated to care for their children. (iStock)

What makes some fathers get up in the middle of the night to comfort their crying baby while others sleep right through? The size of their testicles may be a factor, a new study suggests.
The smaller a man’s testicles, the more involved he is likely to be in caring for his toddler son or daughter, suggests a study conducted by anthropologists at Emory University in Atlanta, Ga., and published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The researchers, led by Jennifer Mascaro, used an MRI to measure the testicles of 70 Atlanta-area fathers who had a child between the age of one and two and lived with the child’s mother as a family. The fathers and their partners had previously been asked a series of questions about who in their family was more likely to perform each of 24 parenting tasks such as changing diapers, bathing their child, take them to medical checkups or attending to them when they woke up in the middle of the night.
By scanning the men’s brains with an fMRI machine while showing them photos of their children, the researchers found they could predict which fathers would be more involved in their children’s care. Men who showed more activity in a part of the brain known to motivate animals to nurture their offspring performed more hands-on parental caregiving.
In general, smaller testicles were also associated with higher nurturing-related brain activity, suggesting that men with smaller testicles were more biologically motivated to care for their children.

Mating versus parenting

Larger testicles are linked to higher sperm counts and therefore the amount of biological effort put into mating. The researchers said their results therefore suggest there is a biological trade-off between the amount of effort put into mating versus parenting in humans.
On the other hand, the study didn’t pinpoint the reason for the link between testicle size and parenting effort.
“We’re assuming that testes size drives how involved the fathers are,” said James Rilling, a co-author of the paper and the head of the lab where the research was performed, in a statement, “but it could also be that when men become more involved as caregivers, their testes shrink.”
That would be similar to what happens with testosterone levels, which fall when men become fathers — something that also happens in other animals where the fathers are active parents. In fact, the researchers chose to focus on testicle size rather than testosterone levels because hormone levels tend to fluctuate much more over time.
The researchers also noted that while the correlation between testicle size and caregiving was statistically significant, it wasn’t perfect.
“The fact that we found this variance suggests personal choice,” said Rilling. “Even though some men may be built differently, perhaps they are willing themselves to be more hands-on fathers. It might be more challenging for some men to do these kinds of caregiving activities, but that by no means excuses them.”

Are Men With Smaller Testicles Really ‘Better’ Fathers?

English: Close-up picture of billiard balls

(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A new study, reporting that “better” fathers have smaller testicles, is creating a stir, probably in part for the number of jokes it inspires. Time’s headline is “Study: Choose dads with smaller ‘nads.” CNN commented on the fittingness of the study’s publication in the journal known as PNAS (say it in your head and you’ll get the joke), the nickname for Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. But there’s an actual point to the study: Men make “decisions” about where to put their energy resources – into “wooing” or into parenting – and testes size does seem to have something to do with it. The problem is that the study defines being a “good” father rather narrowly, so the study’s relevance to real life is completely up for grabs.
Studies in other primates have found that testicle size is linked to different “lifestyles”: Smaller testes are often seen in species whose males are more involved in the offspring, like gorillas, whereas larger ones are seen in the more “promiscuous” species, like chimpanzees. So the authors of the current study, out of Emory University, wanted to see if the same trend is seen within a single primate species: Humans. And since men who are more involved in their kids’ lives and development tend to have kids who are more successful in several realms, the study does have some larger sociological relevance.

In the study, the researchers had 70 fathers of kids one to two years old look at pictures of their own children, as well as unfamiliar children and adults, while undergoing MRI scans. The wives of the fathers also filled out questionnaires to rate how involved the dads were in raising their kids – for example, how often they changed diapers, stayed home from work if the child was sick, and fed and bathed the child. Testicle size and testosterone levels were measures to see what connections might be.
It turned out that men who were more involved in their kids’ upbringings had smaller testicles and lower testosterone levels.
What’s more, an area of the brain called the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is thought to be involved in parental motivation, was activated more in these men. “The men with smaller testes were activating this brain region to a greater extent when looking at photos of their own child,” says study author Jennifer Mascaro, who did the research as part of her post-doctoral training.
Therefore, the authors speculate that testosterone might be linked to the “precopulartory” (or “wooing”) phase, but that testes size is linked to life after sex – life as a parent. In fact, testicle size seems to be more about sperm-production than testosterone production, since most of the interior of testes is made of seminiferous tubules, which pump out sperm. Therefore, this inverse relationship represents a “trade-off between spermatogenesis, a form of mating effort, and parental care.”
But as with any study, there are caveats, and in this one there are a lot.
First, it is a correlation, and it wasn’t a perfect one, which means men aren’t off the hook when it comes to parental involvement. “The fact that we found this variance suggests personal choice,” study author James Rilling says. “Even though some men may be built differently, perhaps they are willing themselves to be more hands-on fathers. It might be more challenging for some men to do these kinds of caregiving activities, but that by no means excuses them.” Practicing any behavior can often overcome a natural disinclination toward it, and parenting is no exception.
The other point to keep in mind is that there’s no evidence that testes size actually causes good or bad parenting behavior – in fact, it could very well be the opposite. Maybe the act of being a very involved father results in these changes in physiology. ”We’re assuming that testes size drives how involved the fathers are,” Rilling says, “but it could also be that when men become more involved as caregivers, their testes shrink. Environmental influences can change biology. We know, for instance, that testosterone levels go down when men become involved fathers.” The same could be true for testicle size.
The other big caveat, as the authors point out, is that only direct forms of childhood care were studied – like diaper-changing. Other forms, which may be even more important – like protecting a child in various ways, earning an income to give them better life, coaching little league, or teaching life lessons – were not studied. It could be that all of these things, which are hugely important aspects of caring for a child, could have other physiological correlates from what was seen in this study. In other words, we have no idea whether being a “good” father as defined in this study really matters in the grand scheme of things.
So, if your spouse has big testicles, don’t despair. The nature vs. nurture debate is often fruitless, and life is more about how the two work together than how either one predicts our behavior. While the study gives some hints as to how biology and psychology interact, the last thing we need is another measurement to worry about, especially at the expense of learning how to be a good parent.
Follow me @alicewalton or find me on Facebook.

Dads with smaller testicles are better fathers, study shows

Men who have smaller testes are more likely be better dads to their toddlers, according to a study published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Researchers from Emory University in Georgia set out to determine why some fathers invest more energy in parenting than others, after prior research has shown that children who have a better relationship with their fathers have better social, psychological and educational outcomes.
Previous studies have shown that lower levels of testosterone in men have been linked to increased parental involvement. But the researchers were interested to see whether testicle volume, more closely linked to sperm count and quality rather than testosterone levels, also played a part.
For the study, the researchers analyzed 70 biological fathers who had a child between the ages of 1 and 2, and who were living with the child and its biological mother.

Father and son playing
Researchers say that fathers who have smaller testes are more likely to be better dads

Both the mothers and fathers took part in interviews to determine the father’s involvement in the care of their child.
Information was gathered on whether the father changes diapers, feeds and bathes the child, whether they stay home to care for their child when it is sick, and whether they take their child for doctor visits.
After the father’s testosterone levels were measured, they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which measured their brain activity as they viewed photos of their own child with happy, sad and neutral expressions.
They were also shown photos of an unknown child and an unknown adult showing similar expressions.

Paternal caregiving dependent on testes size

The findings showed that testosterone levels and the size of testes correlated with the amount of “direct paternal caregiving” that was reported by the parents in the study.
Fathers who had smaller testes showed increased nurturing-related brain activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) – an area of the brain linked to reward and parental motivation – when viewing photos of their own children.
The study authors explain:

“In response to viewing pictures of one’s own child, activity in the ventral tegmental area – a key component of the mesolimbic dopamine reward and motivation system – predicted paternal caregiving and was negatively related to testes volume.
Our results suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort, as indexed by testicular size and nurturing-related brain function, respectively.”

Involvement still determined by personal choice

However, the researchers add that although the correlation between the size of testes and the nurturing activity of the father is significant, it is still down to personal choice as to how involved the father wants to be in their child’s care.
“Even though some men may be built differently, perhaps they are willing themselves to be more hands-on fathers. It might be more challenging for some men to do these kinds of caregiving activities, but that by no means excuses them,” says James Rilling, anthropologist at Emory University and study author.
The researchers also point out that testes size may not be fully accurate in predicting a father’s involvement in their child’s lives.
“We’re assuming that testes size drives how involved the fathers are,” adds Prof. Rilling. “But it could also be that when men become more involved as caregivers, their testes shrink. Environmental influences can change biology. We know, for instance, that testosterone levels go down when men become involved fathers.”
Prof. Rilling adds that another important question is whether the environment a father was brought up in as a child could effect his testes size:
“Some research has shown that boys who experience childhood stress shift their life strategies. Or perhaps fatherless boys react to the absence of their father by adopting a strategy emphasizing mating effort at the expense of parenting effort.”
Written by Honor Whiteman

Men with smaller testicles are more likely than their well-endowed brethren to be involved in the care of their toddlers, anthropologists at Emory University report.
The higher the testosterone levels and larger the testicles, the smaller the amount of direct paternal caregiving by dads as reported by parents in the study.
“Our data suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating and parenting,” Emory anthropologist James Rilling, whose lab conducted the research, reports on the Atlanta university’s website. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published details of the study this week.
The goal of the research, Rilling says, was to determine why some fathers work harder at parenting than others. “Previous studies have shown that children with more involved fathers have better social, psychological and educational outcomes,” he told the school’s website.
Rilling noted that “life history theory” holds that evolution optimizes use of resources toward mating or parenting to generate the largest number and healthiest offspring.
The report notes that economic, social and cultural factors could also influence a father’s level of caregiving. Although statistically significant, the correlation between testicle size and caregiving was not perfect.
“The fact that we found this variance suggests personal choice,” Rilling says.
The study included 70 biological fathers who were living with their toddler and its biological mother. The mothers and fathers were interviewed separately about the father’s involvement in tasks such as changing diapers, feeding and bathing a child and caring for a sick child.
Magnetic resonance imaging also was used to measure brain activity and “testicular volume.”
“We’re assuming that testes size drives how involved the fathers are,” Rilling says, “But it could also be that when men become more involved as caregivers, their testes shrink. Environmental influences can change biology.”
Some researchers question the study’s findings.
Lee Gettler, an anthropologist at Notre Dame who has conducted research on how men respond physically to father-child interactions, says the study assumes that larger testicles translate to more “mating” by men. But they don’t, Gettler told CNN. “Large testes do not make you act promiscuously or badly as a parent.”
Abass Alavi, a researcher with the University of Pennsylvania, told CNN that size doesn’t even determine how much sperm is being created.
“What is important is how much sperm the testicle is making,” he said. “Some geniuses have very small brains.”
Follow John Bacon on Twitter, @jmbacon

Testicle Size ‘Really Is What Matters’

 

Testicles
Testicle size is what counts for a clean bill of health and being able to produce children.
Most men are unaware of how important the size of their testes is in relation to their health, Professor Rob McLachlan, director of Andrology Australia, told Fairfax newspapers.
“I’ve seen men coming in with (testicles) the size of a sultana and they haven’t realised (it’s a problem) – it happens all the time,” Prof McLachlan said.
Men need to be aware of their testicle size, to measure their own health.
“They don’t know how big their testes should be – what’s normal and what’s abnormal,” Prof McLachlan said.
Small testes can indicate there is a testosterone deficiency. This can make a man feel tired, lose muscle, gain fat, lose sex drive.
It could lead to osteoporosis or thinning of the bones. And it can also be a sign of infertility, with a higher risk of developing testicular cancer, Prof McLachlan says.
Genital examinations, which take about 30 seconds, are crucial for men and opens the channel for a diagnosis.
“You want to pick these conditions up in men when they are younger if you can because then you have the chance to intervene and give them 30, 40, 50 years of quality of life and protect them from issues such as thin bones,” Prof McLachlan says.
To raise awareness of men’s health, the male reproductive health centre Andrology Australia is producing orchidometers or different-sized beads.
They range from 1 ml to 35 ml in volume, which help doctors identify reproductive health disorders.
Testicles measured from 15 ml to 35 ml are in the normal range.
“If a man’s testicles are the size of a sultana he should see his doctor,” he said.
from The Sydney Morning Herald

 

Men with large testicles are less involved fathers, while small-balled guys are more nurturing: study

Does your man have the balls to be a good father? Guys with smaller testicles are more likely to be nurturing dads, according to researchers at Emory University.

 

 

Dad and son

iofoto/shutterstock.com

A new study sought to test an evolutionary theory that holds that people and animals are either built to breed or to nurture.

A study Monday measuring fathering habits and testicle size suggested that bigger may not be better when it comes to the day-to-day raising of small children.
The research involved 70 men of varying ethnicities — most were Caucasian, five were Asian and 15 were African-American. All were the fathers of children aged one to two.
The larger the volume of their testes, the less the men were involved in daily parenting activities like changing diapers, said the study by researchers at Emory University in Georgia.
In comparison, men with smaller testes showed more nurturing activity in the brain when shown pictures of their children, and also were more involved in their children’s upbringing, according to surveys answered separately by both the fathers and their female partners.
All the men in the study were aged 21-55 and lived with the biological mothers of their children. Most were married.
RELATED: ARIZONA MAN CLAIMS HE FATHERED 54 CHILDREN: FAMILY MEMBERS
“I wouldn’t want to say that men with large testes are always bad fathers but our data show a tendency for them to be less involved in things like changing diapers, bathing children, preparing meals, taking them to the doctor and things like that,” said lead author James Rilling, an associate professor of anthropology.
The study sought to test an evolutionary theory that holds that people and animals are either built to breed or to nurture.
The findings support the notion that human beings have a limited amount of energy to invest in reproductive efforts — so either they put energy into producing offspring or into raising it.

 

“If you invest more energy in parenting you have less available for mating and vice versa,” explained Rilling.
Since the testes are where sperm is made, and their size can be linked to the amount produced, the researchers said their study is unique and the first of its kind.
RELATED: PARENTS SWAP ADOPTED KIDS ONLINE
Previous studies have shown a link between high testosterone levels and lower parental involvement as well as divorce and infidelity. The Emory team also analyzed testosterone levels and found the same inverse relationship to parental involvement in their study.
“Other people have looked at testosterone and parental behavior but as far as we know we are the first to look at testes size and parental behavior and we think we are getting at something different,” said Rilling.
“We are suggesting that men with larger testes are more built for a mating effort strategy and as a consequence are less built for investing in children.”
Researchers used functional MRI scans to analyze brain activity when the men were shown pictures of their toddlers and also of strangers’ children.
To assess the men’s daily parenting involvement with their young children, scientists asked the men and their female partners to separately fill out questionnaires.
RELATED: THE AVERAGE PENIS SIZE OF AMERICAN MEN IS …
The volume of the testes was measured in a voluntary MRI scan, to which 55 of the 70 men agreed.
Still, the researchers could not say for sure whether testes size caused the difference in fathering behavior, or if perhaps the act of becoming a father might have caused the testes to shrink in some men.
Urologist Joseph Aluka, who was not involved in the research, said he commonly sees men with smaller testes in a certain context.
“The guy who comes in with smaller testes is more likely to have greater difficulty with getting his wife pregnant,” Aluka, an assistant professor at New York University Urology Associates, told AFP.
If such men end up being more involved as parents, “maybe these guys struggled to have kids and appreciate the experience a little bit more,” Aluka said.
“I wouldn’t be surprised if just a few participants in this study fundamentally affected their data because it is a small study,” said Aluka, describing the findings as “a stretch.”
The study appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

What should my testicles look and feel like?

 

 
Most men’s testicles are about the same size, though it’s common for one to be slightly bigger than the other. It’s also common for one testicle to hang lower than the other one.
The testicles should feel smooth without any lumps or bumps and firm but not hard. You may feel a soft tube at the back of each testicle, which is called the epididymis.

What are testicles?

The testicles are two small oval-shaped organs. They are contained in a man’s scrotum, a sac of skin that hangs below the penis.
The testicles are part of the male reproductive system. They produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone.

Examining your testicles

It’s important for men to examine their testicles regularly, about once a month, for any lumps or swellings. Knowing what’s normal for you will help you to notice any changes.
Most lumps in the testicles are harmless. However, in rare cases, a lump can be a sign of testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is most common in younger men and can be successfully treated if diagnosed early.
The best time to examine your testicles is after a warm bath or shower, when the scrotum is relaxed. Hold your scrotum in the palm of your hand and use your fingers and thumb to gently feel each testicle.
If you feel any lumps or swellings in either testicle, or notice any changes in the shape or size of your testicles, see your GP as soon as possible.

What causes lumps and swelling in the testicles?

There are several causes of testicular lumps and swellings:

  • varicocele: caused by enlarged veins in the testicles (may look like a bag of worms)
  • hydrocele: a swelling caused by fluid around the testicle
  • epididymal cyst: a lump caused by a collection of fluid in the epididymis
  • testicular torsion: a sudden painful swelling that occurs when a testicle becomes twisted (this is a medical emergency and requires surgery as soon as possible)
  • testicular cancer: an estimated 4 in 100 lumps are cancer, so this is an uncommon cause of lumps
  • epididymitis: a chlamydia infection in the epididymis can cause inflammation, swelling and tenderness inside the scrotum (ball sack). A few men will notice that the whole of the scrotum is red and tender, when this happens it’s called epididymo-orchitis.

Read more information, on testicular lumps and swellings and testicular cancer.
Read the answers to more questions about men’s health.

Further information:

 

Testicular cancer

 
Two men who have had testicular cancer talk about their experience of it and the importance of checking for early warning signs. Plus advice from an expert
Media last reviewed: 22/01/2012
Next review due: 22/01/2014

How To Check Your Testicles

Testicular cancer is a young man’s disease, and yet this is the age group that has the greatest sense of invincibility from the illness. Dr Harper demonstrates the technique you can use to self-examine your balls, and as it’s best carried out in the shower, it’s a great excuse for taking a bit longer in the morning.

http://ballsthenovel.com/self-examination-of-the-testicles

http://ballsthenovel.com/self-examination-of-the-testicles

Your Care Instructions

Picture of how to perform a testicle self-exam

A self-exam is a way for you to check for cancer of the testicles. Although testicular cancer is rare, it is one of the most common tumors in men younger than 35.
Many testicular cancers are found during self-exam. In the early stages of testicular cancer, the lump, which may be about the size of a pea, usually is not painful. Testicular cancer, especially if treated early, is very often cured.
By doing this self-exam regularly, you can learn the normal size, shape, and weight of your testicles. This allows you to note any changes.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor if you are having problems. It’s also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.

How can you care for yourself at home?

  • The exam is best done during or after a bath or shower—when the scrotum, the skin sac that holds the testicles, is relaxed.
  • Stand and place your right leg on a raised surface about chair height. Then gently feel your scrotum until you find the right testicle.
  • Roll the testicle gently but firmly between your thumb and fingers of both hands. Carefully feel the surface for lumps. Feel for any change in the size, shape, or texture of the testicle. The testicle should feel round and smooth. It is normal for one testicle to be slightly larger than the other one.
  • Repeat this for the left side. Feel the entire surface of both testicles.
  • You may feel the epididymis, the soft tube behind each testicle. Become familiar with this structure so that you won’t mistake it for a lump.

When should you call for help?

Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:

  • You find a lump.
  • You notice that one of your testicles is swollen or larger than it was the last time you checked.
  • You notice that a testicle has become harder or firmer.
  • You have pain in the testicles or scrotum.
  • You have a feeling of heaviness in a testicle or the scrotum.
  • You notice a change in your testicles.

Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor if:

  • You need more information about testicular self-exam.

 

What is it?

Testicular cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both testicles (testes). The testicles are the male sex glands. They are located in the scrotum, behind the penis. They produce testosterone and other male hormones. The testicles also produce and store sperm, the male cells needed for reproduction.

Testicular Cancer

Once testicular cancer develops, it can remain within the testicle, or it can spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis. If it is not detected and treated, testicular cancer eventually can spread to the lungs, brain, liver, and other parts of the body. Certain types of testicular cancer are more likely to spread than others.
Most testicular cancer patients are between the ages of 20 and 40. Though testicular cancer accounts for a very small percentage of all cancer cases in men, it is the most common cancer in younger men.
Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Men who had an undescended testicle as infants have an increased risk for testicular cancer. (An undescended testicle is one that remains in the abdomen or groin instead of moving normally into the scrotum before or soon after birth.) Men who have cancer in one testicle have a small lifetime risk of developing it in the other one, whether or not they had an undescended testicle.
Other men also are at increased risk for testicular cancer, including men who have

  • close relatives who have had testicular cancer
  • an undeveloped testicle
  • been diagnosed as HIV positive
  • certain genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome or Klinefelter syndrome.

Some experts think that these conditions also increase risk:

  • mumps infection of the testicle
  • maternal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • exposure to Agent Orange.

Sometimes, testicular cancer is found when a man is being evaluated for infertility.
The two main types of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors and tumors of supportive tissues, or stromal tumors. Nearly all testicular cancers start in germ cells. These are the cells that make sperm.
There are two types of germ cell tumors: seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas tend to grow slowly. These cancers usually stay within the testicles for a long time without spreading. Non-seminomas form in more mature germ cells. They are more likely to spread, especially to lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are bean-shaped structures throughout the body that produce and store infection-fighting cells.
A small percentage of testicular cancers are tumors of supportive tissues. They begin in the tissues that support the testicles. These stromal cancers are called Sertoli cell tumors and Leydig cell tumors.

Symptoms

Most often, men notice a painless swelling or hardening of a testicle. It may be hard on one side, but not the other. Sometimes, men notice a painful lump in the scrotum.
Men also may notice breast enlargement. Rarely, a milky fluid may come out of the nipple. These two symptoms occur when the tumor affects the secretion of male hormones.
Less common symptoms include

  • a lump in the neck
  • back pain that doesn’t go away
  • shortness of breath
  • coughing up blood.

These less common symptoms tend to appear after the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask when you first noticed symptoms and whether they have worsened over time. He or she will examine the testicle and feel for swollen lymph nodes. Tell your doctor if you had an undescended testicle when you were born.
Your doctor may suspect that you have testicular cancer based on your symptoms or findings during the physical exam, such as a hard lump or area of tenderness. To determine whether a soft lump is solid or fluid filled, your doctor may shine a small flashlight on the lump to see if light travels through it.

The physical exam may be followed by

  • an ultrasound, which can be used to check for a mass or excess fluid inside the testicle.
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans, which use magnetic fields or x-rays to create images of the abdomen. Your doctor will check the images for abnormal masses and enlarged lymph nodes.
  • a chest x-ray, to seewhether the cancer has spread to the lungs.

If your doctor suspects that the testicle has turned and twisted off its blood supply, a special type of imaging scan may be done.
The best way to confirm the diagnosis of testicular cancer is to remove the testicle. This procedure is called an orchiectomy. The testicle will then be examined in a laboratory to determine whether cancer is present, and if so, what type. Blood tests also will be done to measure levels of tumor-marker proteins. These include

  • alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
  • beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG)
  • lactic dehydrogenase.

Expected Duration

In many men, testicular cancer develops slowly and may remain undetected for years. More often, testicular cancer grows rapidly and needs treatment right away.
Like all cancers, testicular cancer will continue to grow and possibly spread until it is treated.

Prevention

There is no way to prevent most cases of testicular cancer.
Men who had an undescended testicle at birth should be monitored regularly for early signs of cancer. Most pediatricians recommend surgery to lower an undescended testicle into the scrotum at a very early age. If the testicle did not even begin its descent into the scrotum, some pediatricians recommend removing it. These “abdominal testes” are more likely to become cancerous over time.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the patient’s overall health, the type of testicular cancer, and its stage, a measure of how far the cancer has spread. The stages of testicular cancer are

  • Stage I. Cancer is found only in the testicle.
  • Stage II. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis.
  • Stage III. Cancer has spread to the lungs, brain, liver, or other parts of the body. Or, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and levels of tumor-marker proteins in the blood are quite high.
  • Recurrent. Cancer has returned after treatment.

The treatment for most types and stages of testicular cancer is to remove the testicle. During this procedure, the surgeon removes the testicle through an incision in the groin. Both before the surgery and a few weeks afterward, blood tests will be done to measure levels of tumor markers. Some men will need additional surgery to see whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis.
After surgery, the treatment of testicular cancer depends on the cancer’s stage. Some men will need only regular monitoring. However, most men will need additional treatment, such as radiation or chemotherapy. Radiation can be directed at the lymph nodes to destroy any bits of cancer that can’t be seen. Chemotherapy is used when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. It can also help keep the cancer from coming back.
In general, patients with seminomas often receive radiation therapy. Radiation therapy doesn’t work as well in patients with non-seminomas. Instead, they tend to undergo surgery and chemotherapy.
After treatment, regular follow-up exams are critical to make certain that the cancer is gone. For the first two years, a man is examined every one to two months. Blood tests, x-rays and CT scans are also done. After that, physical exams and blood tests are done a little less often, with x-rays happening only once or twice a year.
Review your treatment options with an expert in the treatment of testicular cancer. Make sure you understand all of the choices before making a treatment decision.

When To Call a Professional

Contact your doctor if you discover a lump on one or both testicles or in the scrotum. You should also call your doctor if you develop persistent pain or swelling of either testicle.
Because testicular cancer is so rare, many doctors may never treat a patient with the disease. That’s why patients who have been diagnosed with testicular cancer should be treated at a large cancer center where the staff is expert in evaluating and caring for men with this condition. Doctors who use chemotherapy and/or radiation to treat testicular cancer need special skills and knowledge to treat the disease safely and effectively. Experience counts.

Prognosis

Testicular cancer usually can be cured if it is detected and treated early. However, this cancer can spread silently and quickly. This means that some men will not be diagnosed until the disease is in an advanced stage.
At one time, testicular cancer could not be cured if it had spread beyond the testicles. Now, testicular cancer is one of the most curable cancers.
Most men with testicular cancer have an excellent prognosis. Men with Stage I disease are very likely to be cured with surgery and radiation therapy. Men with Stage II disease have a very good prognosis following surgery and radiation or chemotherapy. Even men with the most advanced cases have a fair prognosis: More than half of them will be alive five years later.
People who have been cured of testicular cancer involving one testicle have a small risk of developing cancer in the other testicle at some point in their lives.

Additional Information

National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Public Inquiries Office
6116 Executive Blvd.
Room 3036A
Bethesda, MD 20892-8322
Toll-Free: 1-800-422-6237
TTY: 1-800-332-8615
www.nci.nih.gov/
American Cancer Society (ACS) 1599 Clifton Road, NE
Atlanta, GA 30329-4251
Toll-Free: 1-800-227-2345
TTY: 1-866-228-4327
www.cancer.org/

Testicular Cancer

Testical examination

If you regularly find yourself fondling your balls in the shower, then you should transform your comforting cupping into a regular and reassuring self-examination for testicular cancer. If you get used to the size and shape of your balls, then any change or anomaly you notice should be taken seriously. However, a swelling or painless, pea-sized lump in one of the testes (balls) is most common. Early diagnosis of testicular cancer means that recovery is high and the current survival rate is an impressive 95%. It is considered a young man’s cancer and is the biggest cause of cancer-related death in 15 to 35 year-old males, but it is still quite rare and accounts for about 1-2% of all cancers in men, with approximately 2000 new cases per year in the UK. Treatment for testicular cancer will reduce you to ‘meat and just one veg’, but the alternative if the cancer spreads is a lot worse.
If you’re suffering from any of the conditions featured on this site and want to apply for an onscreen consultation with one of the EB team then you can find more details here >>
Remember that you should always check with a health professional if you have any concerns about your health.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7wApZEi7gWY&oref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3D7wApZEi7gWY&has_verified=1

Doctor Responses: Testicular Cancer

We’ve taken your most common questions posted on our testicular cancer, testicle pain and epididymal cyst condition guides, and put them to Dr Christian to answer.
Did you find this useful? YesYes NoNo
102 of 102 people said they found this useful

About Testicular Cancer: Self Exam

Testicular Cancer Monthly Self Exam
A testicular self exam is best performed after a warm bath or shower. Heat relaxes the scrotum, making it easier to spot anything abnormal. The National Cancer Institute recommends following these steps every month:

  1. Stand in front of a mirror. Check for any swelling on the scrotum skin.
  2. Examine each testicle with both hands. Place the index and middle fingers under the testicle with the thumbs placed on top. Roll the testicle gently between the thumbs and fingers. Don’t be alarmed if one testicle seems slightly larger than the other. That’s normal.
  3. Find the epididymis, the soft, tubelike structure behind the testicle that collects and carries sperm. If you are familiar with this structure, you won’t mistake it for a suspicious lump. Cancerous lumps usually are found on the sides of the testicle but can also show up on the front.
  4. If you find a lump, see a doctor right away. The abnormality may not be cancer, but if it is, the chances are great it can spread if not stopped by treatment. Only a physician can make a positive diagnosis.
Self Exam

Would you like information on how to receive a free monthly reminder to perform a self exam? If so, please click here.
The video below shows how to perform a testicular self-examination and is from the Channel 4 Embarrassing Bodies website.

http://www.encognitive.com/node/10344

http://www.encognitive.com/node/10344

Testicle Removal Procedure:

Testicle Removal Surgery

 

Testicular Removal (Orchiectomy, uni or bilateral) with or without Insertion of Testicular Prosthesis
Orchiectomy, the process of testicle removal may be necessary for several medical conditions. Testicular cancer is the most common reason for testicle removal.
Other condition such as severe trauma to the testicles, testicular atrophy (shrinkage), or testosterone cessation treatment for prostate cancer may be other reasons for testicle removal.
After diagnosis and determination of indication, Dr. Elist performs testicular removal surgeries on outpatient basis (short hospital stay may be arranged if desired by the patient). Regular activities can usually be resumed 1 to 2 weeks after testicular removal, and full recovery is expected within 2 to 4 weeks.
Testicle removal is a major part of testicular cancer treatment. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged 20-39 years. It can present with or without pain. The mass usually feels firm and arises from the testicle. Testicular cancer has one of the highest rates of cure, over 90%, and even 100% if it has not spread. Occasionally, testicular cancer may appear with symptoms of metastasis , which could include cough, shortness of breath, or weight loss. Even in case of metastasis, modern chemotherapy can achieve a cure rate of over 80%. Monthly testicular self-exams are recommended for every man between the ages of 18-40 years old.
Signs and Symptoms: 

  • a lump in one testis which may or may not be painful
  • sharp pain or a dull ache in the lower abdomen or scrotum
  • a feeling often described as “heaviness” in the scrotum
  • breast enlargement (gynecomastia) from hormonal effects of β-hCG
  • low back pain (lumbago) tumor spread to the lymph nodes along the back

If testicular cancer spreads, the following symptoms may be present:

  • shortness of breath (dyspnea), cough or coughing up blood (hemoptysis) from metastatic spread to the lungs
  • a lump in the neck due to metastases to the lymph nodes

Diagnosis:
Self examination, physical and history, imaging studies, biopsy, or a removal of affected testicle (orchiectomy, testicle removal) for diagnosis and treatment purposes.
Treatment:
Treatment of testicular cancer is depending on the pathology and may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Dr. Elist Orchiectomy (Testicle Removal Surgery)

Orchiectomy(testicle removal) is the removal of one or both testicles due to underlying pathology. Testicular cancer, undecsended testicles, or other pathologies are some of the causes that may warrant a removal of the testicle.
During the testicle removal procedure one or both testis are removed without any damage to the penis or the scrotum. Dr. Elist performs orchiectomies(testicle removal) by given pathology, and offers a replacement of the diseased testicle (s) with a testicular prosthesis.
Dr. Elist performs simple testicle removal through a scrotal inguinal approach and radical Orchiectomy through an inguinal approach with abdominal exploration (during the testicle removal, Dr. Elist looks inside the abdomen to rule out possible affected lymph nodes or other metastasis foci).
An incision is made in one side of the scrotum and the tissues are separated to expose the spermatic cord. The spermatic cord is opened and the individual bundles making up the cord are cross-clamped, cut, and secured with nonabsorbable suture material. The testis is removed through the scrotal incision(testicle removal phase). If the patient chooses and if no contraindications are present, a prosthetic testis is inserted into the scrotum before the wound is closed in layers by suturing. An alternative method uses an incision in the groin. The testis is pulled up through the incision after cutting and trying the cord in a fashion similar to the scrotal approach.
Dr. Elist performs a radical testicle removal by removing en bloc the contents of half of the scrotum. An incision is made in the inguinal area from the pubic bone up towards the lateral pelvic bone. The incision made deep into the tissues and the spermatic cord is dissected free and cross-clamped. The testis and all its associated structures are pushed up from the scrotum into the incision and removed. Packing is then placed in the empty scrotum. When the spermatic cord is opened and the individual bundles making up the cord are cross-clamped, cut, and secured with nonabsorbable suture material, care is taken to avoid important nerves and vessels in the area. The packing is removed and bleeding controlled. A prosthetic testis may be placed in the scrotum before the incision is closed in layers by suturing. This procedure results in complete removal of the testis. If abdominal exploration is warranted, a midline incision is made from the upper to the lower abdomen and the abdominal cavity is entered. The back wall of the abdomen is exposed and the lymph nodes are checked for spread of tumor. Some may be removed and/or biopsied and the abdominal wound is closed in multiple layers by suturing.  
Testicle removal can be a dramatic life event for men. The resulting scrotal deformity and the uneven look of the scrotum can pose a serious psychological stress to many men resulting in decrease of self esteem and even sexual dysfunction. Testicle removal can be accompanied by the insertion of uni or bilateral testicular prosthesis to achieve a natural look of the scrotum.

Dr. Elist Insertion of Testicular Prosthesis or Implant

After a unilateral or bilateral testicle removal and for cosmetic reasons, Dr. Elist places an artificial testis in the scrotum of a patient. The aesthetic results are positively affecting the psychological well being and self confidence of men who have had a testicle removal for different reasons (e.g., undecsended testis, testicular cancer, etc.)
Furthermore, Dr. Elist offers a unilateral or bilateral testicular implant placement for testicular and scrotal enhancement. The ELIST Testicular Implants consist of a medical degree soft silicone material, and are designed to enhance the size of an existing testicle.
The ELIST Testicular Prosthesis serves to enhance the testicular size or to adjust the size of one testicle to the opposite site. Typical patients for the ELIST Testicular Implant are men, who desire an overall aesthetic enhancement of their scrotum, who suffer from asymmetrical testicular size, or have undergone an orchiectomy with prosthesis placement and asymmetrical results.(Testicular Enhancement Surgery)
After adequate local anesthesia, an incision is made in the inguinal area and the empty scrotal sac is carefully dilated by passing a dissecting figure or a moist gauze sponge through the inguinal canal into the scrotal sac and the neck of the scrotum is closed by suturing. The inguinal incision is closed inlayers by suturing.
Insertion of uni or bilateral testicular prosthesis after testicle removal may sometimes result in an asymmetric scrotal appearance. In case of an asymmetric end result after testicle removal and prosthesis insertion, Dr. Elist will improve the scrotal appearance and symmetry using his patented ELIST Testicular Implants which if desired can simultaneously increase the testicular size [insert link to testicular enhancement].

Click here for more information  (Redirects to Surgeon For Men Website.)

Benefits of Dr. Elist’s Testicular Enhancement Surgery

Testicle removal

Testicular Enhancement Before After Photo
testicle removal

Testicular Enhancement Before After Photo
testicle removal

Testicular Enhancement Before After Photo 

Man Sells Own Testicles on eBay

Mr. Uzbek’s testicles, seen here, were surgically removed by his whoring ex-wife. They were purchased by Michael Jackson for reasons unknown.

Lawrence Uzbek is not a happy man. Recently divorced, he�s making an outrageous alimony payment, child support, and paying legal fees. He is the party that instigated the divorce, but only after it came to pass that he discovered that during an away game, his wife had slept with the entire Los Angeles Lakers basketball team (Kobe Bryant three times). Naturally annoyed, he demanded a divorce, expecting some kind of retribution. But, being California, it was not to be. His wife de-balled him in court, leaving him with nothing but payments and broken dreams.

Having been so de-balled, and on a reasonably public stage, at that, Mr. Uzbek felt that he might as well do something with his testicles, as long as they were just going to be lying there anyway. He soon found himself contemplating giving them to science for analysis, but scrapped that idea. Then when he heard about the cheese sandwich being sold on eBay for thousands of dollars, he figured that he had found his answer. He had no further need for his testicles, and yet he did have a need for money. It was a match made in Heaven.

Mr. Uzbek put his detached scrotum sac on the table and artfully arranged it with some flowers, then took a picture of the sac with his digital camera. After uploading the image, he set the bidding at $2,500 and waited for the bids to come pouring in. They did not.

It seems that there was little demand for a second-hand pair of testicles, especially testicles that had proven themselves to be so weak to begin with. �I thought there�d be a lot more demand,� said Uzbek. �I mean, they�re perfectly good, not a thing wrong with them, never been hit with a football or anything like that. They�re perfect. So they couldn�t stand up to my ex-wife. Big deal. Like yours could.�

Judge Stewart awarded custody of the removed testicles to Mr. Uzbek, stating, “Even if they’re detached, a man needs some balls.”

After fourteen days with the reserve price not met, bidding closed without the sale of the testicles. Mr. Uzbek then lowered the price by $500 and started over. time, he got some interest, from one �M. Jackson.� �Oh, I prayed and I prayed that he wouldn�t win them,� said Uzbek, �but it was all in vain. Michael Jackson now owns my testicles. I don�t know what sick and twisted things he�s doing with them, but you can bet your ass that it�s sick and twisted.�

A spokesman for Mr. Jackson suggested that they were going to be used as �stress balls,� those little balls that you roll around in your hand when you�re nervous. Obviously, with the ongoing trial, that would certainly be reasonable � and horrific. �I can�t stand the image of Michael Jackson playing with my balls,� said Uzbek. �Can�t he just give them back? I�ll even pay him double what he paid me, I just don�t want that sick S.O.B. to have them. It gives me the creeps.�

should serve as a warning to other divorcees who might want to put their genitals up for auction on eBay � you never know who is going to get them, in the end. So unless you�re really that hard up for the money, try selling them on the black market, instead. At least there they might make somebody a nice Asian aphrodisiac or something (those silly Asians are always grinding things up and calling them aphrodisiacs).

Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Paprikas Recipe

May 17, 2012 by László Varga

 

Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Paprikas Recipe

May 17, 2012 by László Varga

Ingredients (2 persons)

  • 400 g veal testicles
  • 1 red onion
  • 2 tablespoons duck lard, or vegetable oil
  • 3-4 smaller green peppers
  • 6-8 black peppercorns
  • 2 teaspoons paprika
  • 3 stalks green garlic
  • 2-3 small tomatoes
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 2-3 fresh thyme branches
  • 2 egg yolks
  • 100 g white flour
  • 100 g sour creme
  • some parsley for garnishing

Preparation method:

  1. Clean the testicles of the excess skins and wash carefully. Let them in soak for about half an hour in water mixed with some vinegar and then again for another half hour in plain water to wash off the vinegar sourness. If still has vinegar smell wash again in water.
  2. Chop the onion. Heat the lard in a pan and fry the chopped onion until fragrant.
  3. Chop the green peppers and add them to the pan together with some water, paprika, salt and peppercorns. Simmer for 30-40 minutes until the peppers are soft.
  4. Add the cleaned testicles to the pan and water to cover everything with liquid. Start  again the simmering process.
  5. Chop the green garlic and add together with the thyme branches to the stew. Simmer for about an hour from the testicle addition.
  6. Dice the tomatoes into small cubes, add them to the stew pan together with the sour creme and simmer for another 15 minutes. Taste the stew and season to taste with salt, pepper and paprika.
  7. Meanwhile, in a bowl, whisk the egg yolks. Add gradually the flour and season with some salt. Mix with a fork and add some more flour until it gets to a thicker consistency.
  8. With the help of a teaspoon put small amounts of the egg-flour mix to the stew to make the noodles. If not enough liquid to boil in the pan add a little more water. Boil for 5 minutes.
  9. Serve hot the the stew with testicles and noodles, garnish with some freshly chopped parsley leaves and a spoonful of sour creme.

Veal Testicle
Veal Testicle
Chopped onion
Chop the onion
Fry the chopped onion until fragrant
Fry the chopped onion until fragrant
Simmer until the peppers are soft
Simmer until the peppers are soft

 

Add testicles to pan and water to cover
Add testicles to pan and water to cover
Chopped green garlic
Chop the green garlic
Add green garlic and thyme to the stew
Add green garlic and thyme to the stew
Dice tomatoes into small cubes
Dice tomatoes into small cubes

 

Simmer for another 15 minutes
Simmer for another 15 minutes
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew - Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew - Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew - Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Porkolt

 

Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew - Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew - Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew - Porkolt
Hungarian Veal Testicles Stew – Porkolt
Veal Testicle
Veal Testicle

 

Chopped peppers
Chop the green peppers 

lamb testicles

 

testicles copy
Lamb testicles for sale in the souk in Damascus — these are a lot more veined than the norm; also it is not often that you find them hung like this. The butcher peels and discards the outer membrane before weighing and cutting them the way you want.

A few days ago, Serious Eats tweeted about yak testicles. I have never tried them but I love lamb testicles and have been eating them forever. Well, from when I could chew. They are considered a great delicacy in Lebanon and I find their soft, melting texture and subtle flavour irresistible. Of course, they need to be very fresh for that subtle, clean taste but this is not a problem in the Middle East where they slaughter lambs and sell the meat and offal the same day.

Often when I go to Beirut, I call my mother from London to ask her to prepare something delicious and she always gets me testicles. Except that last time I was there, the butcher had diced them instead of cutting them in wedges and my mother hadn’t noticed. A disaster, at least for me. It is more difficult to control the cooking time when they are cut so small and as a result, they can easily overcook and turn rubbery.
testicles - diced copy
So, I had to wait till the next day to call the butcher and ask him to send us some more, but cut in wedges this time. The funny thing was that the new lot was paler and a lot softer than the diced ones. Perhaps they were even fresher although I didn’t find out — I left Lebanon before I could ask him.
testicles - wedges copy
In any case, I dipped them in a little seasoned flour and fried them in butter for a minute or so on each side. Then I squeezed a little lemon juice over them as they finished cooking and enjoyed. They were just perfect, even if they don’t look like much in the picture.
testicles - cooked 2 copy
And then there was one…

The sad thing is that I can no longer find lamb testicles easily in London. My Lebanese butcher who used to have them no longer sells them, and the Turkish butcher I go to in Green Lanes only has them  in winter. Luckily, I am going back to Lebanon soon and I will be calling my mother to place my order. But not diced, please!

testicles copy

 
Prostate cancer is the most common  cancer in men in the UK and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Each year in the UK approximately 30,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer and 9,500 die from the disease.
Prostate cancer is rare before 50 with the average age of diagnosis around 75 years. The risk is higher in those with a family history and African-Caribbean origin.
Prostate cancers range from very aggressive tumours to slow growing tumours. Slow growing tumours are more common and may not cause any symptoms or shorten life.

 

http://www.prostatehealthguide.com/

If you don’t know what your prostate is or what it does, you’re certainly not alone: most men don’t. But you really should. More than 30 million men suffer from prostate conditions that negatively affect their quality of life.
 
Over 50% of men in their 60s and as many as 90% in their 70s or older have symptoms of an enlarged prostate (BPH).
 
Each year over 230,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and about 30,000 will die of it.
 
Prostatitis is an issue for men of all ages and affects 35% of men aged 50 and older.
 
This website offers you a guide to the prostate and various conditions that can affect your health.

Wear Blue to fight prostate cancer.

For poster and flyers about prostate issues and men’s health, click here.

For educational materials, visit our store.

http://www.prostatehealthguide.com/

 
Prostate cancer is the most common  cancer in men in the UK and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Each year in the UK approximately 30,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer and 9,500 die from the disease.
Prostate cancer is rare before 50 with the average age of diagnosis around 75 years. The risk is higher in those with a family history and African-Caribbean origin.
Prostate cancers range from very aggressive tumours to slow growing tumours. Slow growing tumours are more common and may not cause any symptoms or shorten life.

 

Prostate Diseases

The prostate is a gland. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from the bladder and out of the body. A young man’s prostate is about the size of a walnut. It slowly grows larger with age. If it gets too large, it can cause problems. This is very common after age 50. The older men get, the more likely they are to have prostate trouble.
Some common problems are

  • Prostatitis – an infection, usually caused by bacteria
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH – an enlarged prostate, which may cause dribbling after urination or a need to go often, especially at night
  • Prostate cancer – a common cancer that responds best to treatment when detected early
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Enlarged Prostate

An enlarged prostate (known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH) is one of three main conditions that can affect the prostate. Similar to prostate cancer, prostate enlargement usually only affects men over the age of 50, and about half men over this age will have some sort of prostate enlargement. It’s caused by an overgrowth of prostate cells and symptoms include: difficulty passing urine because of weak and slow flow; passing urine frequently (more than 10 times a day); frequently waking up in the night to urinate (nocturia); and incomplete emptying of the bladder. Treatment for an enlarged prostate depends on whether your symptoms are causing you problems, or if there are complications. For mild symptoms, it’s possible to make certain lifestyle changes, such as: avoiding alcoholic or caffeine-based drinks; avoiding drinking late at night; and increasing the amount of fruit and fibre you eat to avoid constipation, which can put pressure on your bladder. Other treatment options can include medication or a prostatectomy (a surgical procedure to remove part of, or the whole, prostate).
Watch the Live from the Clinic interactive case video on prostate awareness >

Comments and Questions

The EB doctors have been looking at your comments and have answered some of the common questions below. Remember that it is always best to check with a health professional if you have any concerns about your health.

Prostate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Prostate cancer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
  Definition of prostate cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men. 
Estimated new cases and deaths from prostate cancer in the United States in 2013:

  • New cases: 238,590
  • Deaths: 29,720

See the online booklet What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer to learn about prostate cancer staging tests, treatment, and questions to ask the doctor.

For an overview of research advances, see Cancer Advances In Focus: Prostate Cancer.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Prostate cancer

Information on prostate cancer, including how it is diagnosed, treatments you might have, possible side effects and how to get further support.

 

Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)

As a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center, a core part of our mission is to educate patients and the community about cancer. The following summary is trusted information from the NCI.

General Information About Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland produces fluid that makes up part of the semen.Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs.
Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men. As men age, the prostate may get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. This may cause difficulty in urination or can interfere with sexual function. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed to correct it. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer. Normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A normal prostate does not block the flow of urine from the bladder. An enlarged prostate presses on the bladder and urethra and blocks the flow of urine.
These and other symptoms may be caused by prostate cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:

  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
  • Frequent urination (especially at night).
  • Trouble urinating.
  • Pain or burning during urination.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • A pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn’t go away.
  • Painful ejaculation.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer (whether it affects part of the prostate, involves the whole prostate, or has spread to other places in the body).
  • The patient’s age and health.
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Prognosis also depends on the Gleason score and the level of PSA.

Stages of Prostate Cancer

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:

The stage of the cancer is based on the results of the staging and diagnostic tests, including the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and the original tumor biopsy. The biopsy is used to determine the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2-10 and describes how different the cancer cells look from normal cells and how likely it is that the tumor will spread. The lower the number, the less likely the tumor is to spread.
The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

  • Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
  • Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
  • Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.

When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.
As prostate cancer progresses from Stage I to Stage IV, the cancer cells grow within the prostate, through the outer layer of the prostate into nearby tissue, and then to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. In stage I, cancer is found in the prostate only. The cancer:

  • is found by needle biopsy (such as for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging. Cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level and the Gleason score are not known.

In stage II, cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Stage II is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB.
In stage IIA, cancer:

  • is found by needle biopsy (such as for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or
  • is found by needle biopsy (such as for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or
  • is found in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7 or lower; or
  • is found in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level and the Gleason score are not known.

In stage IIB, cancer:

  • is found in both lobes of the prostate. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or
  • cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate. The PSA level is 20 or higher and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or
  • cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score is 8 or higher.

In stage III, cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate on one or both sides and may have spread to the seminal vesicles. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10.
In stage IV, the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10. Also, cancer:

  • has spread beyond the seminal vesicles to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall; or
  • may have spread to the seminal vesicles or to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes; or
  • has spread to distant parts of the body, which may include lymph nodes or bones. Prostate cancer often spreads to the bones.

Recurrent Prostate Cancer

Recurrent prostate cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the prostate or in other parts of the body.

Treatment Option Overview

Different types of treatment are available for patients with prostate cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change. This is usually used in older men with other medical problems and early-stage disease.
Patients in good health are usually offered surgery as treatment for prostate cancer. The following types of surgery are used:

Impotence and leakage of urine from the bladder or stool from the rectum may occur in men treated with surgery. In some cases, doctors can use a technique known as nerve-sparing surgery. This type of surgery may save the nerves that control erection. However, men with large tumors or tumors that are very close to the nerves may not be able to have this surgery.
The penis may be 1 to 2 centimeters shorter after a radical prostatectomy. The exact reason for this is not known.
Inguinal hernia is bulging of fat or part of the small intestine through weak muscles into the groin. Inguinal hernia may occur more often in men treated with radical prostatectomy than in men who have some other types of prostate surgery, radiation therapy, or prostate biopsy alone. It is most likely to occur within the first 2 years after radical prostatectomy.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
There is an increased risk of bladder cancer and/or rectal cancer in men treated with radiation therapy.
Impotence and urinary problems may occur in men treated with radiation therapy.
Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream. In prostate cancer, male sex hormones can cause prostate cancer to grow. Drugs, surgery, or other hormones are used to reduce the production of male hormones or block them from working.
Hormone therapy used in the treatment of prostate cancer may include the following:

Hot flashes, impaired sexual function, loss of desire for sex, and weakened bones may occur in men treated with hormone therapy. Other side effects include diarrhea, nausea, and pruritus (itching).
This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.
High-intensity focused ultrasound is a treatment that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) to destroy cancer cells. To treat prostate cancer, an endorectal probe is used to make the sound waves.
Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of high-energy, external radiation therapy that targets tumors with streams of protons (small, positively charged particles). This type of radiation therapy is being studied in the treatment of prostate cancer.
For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.
Many of today’s standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.
Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. These have been retrieved from NCI’s listing of clinical trials.
Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This is sometimes called re-staging.
Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

Treatment Options by Stage

A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.

Stage I Prostate Cancer

Treatment of stage I prostate cancer may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI’s list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage II Prostate Cancer

Treatment of stage II prostate cancer may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI’s list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage III Prostate Cancer

Treatment of stage III prostate cancer may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI’s list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage III prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage IV Prostate Cancer

Treatment of stage IV prostate cancer may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI’s list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IV prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Treatment Options for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

Treatment of recurrent prostate cancer may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI’s list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

To Learn More About Prostate Cancer

For more information from the National Cancer Institute about prostate cancer, see the following:

For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:

Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)

Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Prostate Cancer: Enlarged Prostate

 

Benign (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate, known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH for short), is the most common prostate problem in men. Almost all men will develop some enlargement of the prostate as they age.
Enlarged Prostate

When Does Prostate Enlargement Happen?

Overall, the number of men with BPH increases progressively with age. By age 60, 50% of men will have some signs of BPH. By age 85, 90% of men will have signs of the condition. About one third of these men will develop symptoms that require treatment.

Does BPH Increase Your Risk of Developing Prostate Cancer?

Based on research to date, the answer is no. However, BPH and prostate cancer have similar symptoms, and a man who has BPH may have undetected cancer at the same time.
To help detect prostate cancer in its early stages, the American Cancer Society advises annual screening starting at age 50 in men who have at least a 10-year life expectancy. They also say that for men who are at high risk, such as African-American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer, screening should begin at about age 45. Men at an even higher risk, such as having several relatives with a history of prostate cancer at an early age, could begin testing at age 40.
The American Urological Association agrees that annual screening should begin at age 50 but encourages men in high risk groups, such as African-Americans or those with a family history, to begin screening at age 40 as opposed to 45. Tests used to screen for prostate cancer include a blood test for a substance called prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the digital rectal exam (DRE).
 

What Are the Symptoms of BPH?

Since the prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body, it is easy to see that enlargement of the prostate can lead to blockage of the tube. You may develop:
  • Slowness or dribbling of your urinary stream
  • Hesitancy or difficulty starting to urinate
  • Frequent urination
  • Feeling of urgency or sudden need to urinate
  • Need to get up at night to urinate
As symptoms progress, you may develop:
  • Bladder stones
  • Bladder infection
  • Blood in your urine
  • Damage to your kidneys from back pressure caused by retaining large amounts of extra urine in the bladder
  • Sudden blockage of the urinary tube, making urination impossible

How Is BPH Diagnosed?

After evaluating your medical history and giving you a complete physical, your doctor will perform a digital rectal examination.
Because the prostate gland is in front of the rectum, the doctor can feel if the back of the gland has any abnormalities during this examination. This enables the doctor to estimate the size of the prostate and to detect any hard areas that could be cancer.
Several studies may be done to help diagnose your condition:
  • A urine test called a urinalysis
  • A seven-question BPH Symptom Score Index survey to evaluate the severity of your symptoms
  • A flow study to measure how slow the urinary stream is compared with normal flow
  • A study to detect how much urine is left in the bladder after urination is done

Prostate enlargement

 

Prostate enlargement, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is a common condition that affects older men. It is usually not a serious threat to health.
The prostate is a small gland found only in men, located between the penis and bladder (see box on this page).
If the prostate becomes enlarged, it can place pressure on the bladder and urethra, the tube through which urine passes. This can affect how you pass urine, because it may cause:

  • difficulty starting urination
  • a frequent need to urinate
  • difficulty emptying the bladder fully

These symptoms can range from mild to severe. See symptoms of prostate enlargement.
Many men worry that having an enlarged prostate means that they have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. This is not the case. Men with prostate enlargement do not have a higher risk of prostate cancer compared to men without an enlarged prostate. 

How common is prostate enlargement?

Prostate enlargement is a common condition that is associated with ageing. Around 60% of men who are aged 60 or over have some degree of prostate enlargement.
The cause of prostate enlargement is unknown, but most experts agree that it is linked to changes in hormone levels in a man’s body due to ageing (see causes of prostate enlargement for more information).

Outlook

Prostate enlargement is not usually a serious threat to a man’s health.
In some men, the symptoms are mild and do not require treatment. In others, symptoms can be very troublesome and have a major impact on their quality of life.
Complications of prostate enlargement can include urinary tract infections (UTIs) or acute urinary retention (AUR) but serious complications are rare.
There are several treatments available for prostate enlargement, including:

  • lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and caffeine
  • medication
  • surgery

See treatment of prostate enlargement for more information.

Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

 

Image Collection:

Human Anatomy

Male Anatomy of Reproduction: The Prostate

Picture of the Prostate

back button next button

© 2009 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

Side View of the Prostate

The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. The prostate is just in front of the rectum. The urethra runs through the center of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis, letting urine flow out of the body.
The prostate secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra, and it’s expelled with sperm as semen.
The vasa deferentia (singular: vas deferens) bring sperm from the testes to the seminal vesicles. The seminal vesicles contribute fluid to semen during ejaculation.

 

Prostate Conditions

  • Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate, sometimes caused by infection. In some cases, it is treated with antibiotics.
  • Enlarged prostate: Called benign prostatic hypertrophy or BPH, prostate growth affects virtually all men over 50. Symptoms of difficult urination tend to increase with age. Medicines or surgery can treat BPH.
  • Prostate cancer: It’s the most common form of cancer in men (besides skin cancer), but only one in 35 men die from prostate cancer. Surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy can be used to treat prostate cancer. Some men choose to delay treatment, which is called watchful waiting.

Prostate Tests

  • Digital rectal examination (DRE): A doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate. A DRE can sometimes detect an enlarged prostate, lumps or nodules of prostate cancer, or tenderness from prostatitis.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): The prostate makes a protein called PSA, which can be measured by a blood test. If PSA is high, prostate cancer is more likely, but an enlarged prostate can also cause a high PSA.
  • Prostate ultrasound (transrectal ultrasound): An ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum, bringing it close to the prostate. Ultrasound is often done with a biopsy to test for prostate cancer.
  • Prostate biopsy: A needle is inserted into the prostate to take tissue out to check for prostate cancer. This is usually done through the rectum.

Prostate Treatments

Enlarged Prostate Treatment

  • Alpha-blockers: Alpha-blockers relax the muscles around the urethra in men with symptoms from an enlarged prostate. Urine then flows more freely.
  • 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors: These medications reduce the level of a certain form of testosterone (DHT). The prostate shrinks when less DHT is present, improving urine flow.
  • Surgery for an enlarged prostate: Usually, medications resolve symptoms of an enlarged prostate, but some men require surgery to improve symptoms and prevent complications.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

  • Prostatectomy: Surgery for prostate cancer, called a prostatectomy, removes the prostate with the goal of removing all the cancer.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation kills prostate cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy cells.
  • Radioactive seed implants: Instead of radiation pointed at the prostate from outside the body, radioactive seeds can be implanted into the prostate to kill cancer cells.
  • Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy involves killing prostate cancer cells by freezing them.
  • Hormone therapy: Prostate cancer cells grow in response to hormones. Hormone therapy helps block that effect.
  • Chemotherapy: When prostate cancer is advanced, chemotherapy may help reduce the cancer’s spread.
  • Watchful waiting: Since prostate cancer is often slow growing, some older men and their doctors hold off on treatment and wait to see if the cancer appears to be growing.
  • Clinical trials: Through prostate cancer clinical trials, researchers test the effects of new medications on a group of volunteers with prostate cancer.

Prostatitis Treatment

 
Prostate cancer is the most common  cancer in men in the UK and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Each year in the UK approximately 30,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer and 9,500 die from the disease.
Prostate cancer is rare before 50 with the average age of diagnosis around 75 years. The risk is higher in those with a family history and African-Caribbean origin.
Prostate cancers range from very aggressive tumours to slow growing tumours. Slow growing tumours are more common and may not cause any symptoms or shorten life.

 

What are the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer? 

 

The stark reality for men is this: We’re all at risk for developing prostate cancer.  If you’re not already aware, please realize that one in every six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point during the course of their lives.  Early detection and treatment is the key to survivability.
Read that again: One in every six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during the course of their lives! 80% of all men who achieve the great age of 80-years old have prostate cancer.
Since only men have a prostate gland, this is a disease that only affects males.  Obviously, the first main risk factor for prostate cancer is simply being born male.  However, it’s incredibly important to understand that there are many other risk factors associated with an increased risk for acquiring prostate cancer, including but not limited to: age, race, diet, genetics, social habits, weight, and family history.

Age presents itself as the greatest risk factor for developing prostate cancer.  At the age of 50-years old, the risk for prostate cancer begins to climb substantially in white males without a family history of prostate cancer.  For black males, the age of 40-years old starts the increased risk.  Also, all men with a close relative who has suffered with prostate cancer have this steep increase in prostate cancer risk at a baseline age of 40-years old.  Approximately 65% of all prostate cancer diagnoses occur in men aged 65-years or older.
With regard to family history as a risk for prostate cancer, men with relatives who have had prostate cancer are considered to be a high risk group.

1 – If you have a father or brother with prostate cancer, your risk of acquiring the disease is more than doubled.
2 – If you have a brother with prostate cancer, your risk appears to be greater than if you only had a father who was similarly affected.
3 – If you have multiple members within your family with prostate cancer, your risk is even greater.

If you belong to this “family history” related risk group, your screening for prostate cancer must begin at the age of 40-years old.
Studies have shown that you may also have a genetic predisposition for prostate cancer.  Several inherited genes seem to increase your prostate cancer risk. Sadly, genetic testing to detect these genes is not currently available.  Experts reasonably estimate that this genetic predisposition for prostate cancer accounts for approximately 5% to 10% of all prostate cancer diagnoses.  Scientists are working hard to determine if the development of genetic testing will aid in prediction of prostate cancer risks in those men so affected.
Another risk factor for prostate cancer is a racial or ethnic predisposition.  In African-American men, the rate of prostate cancer occurrences is approximately 60% greater than their white-male counterparts.  Further, when prostate cancer is ultimately diagnosed in these men, it’s often at a more advanced stage.  Strangely, Japanese and African males who live within their native countries demonstrate lower occurrences of prostate cancer.  Their prostate cancer rates increase significantly when they come to the United States.
Theories imply a possible environmentally-related connection.  Those include lower sun exposure, high-fat diets, exposure to heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, etc.) or smoking tobacco.  As it stand there is no current clear understanding as to these racial differences and their impact on prostate cancer prevalence.
If you belong to the African-American male risk group, your screening for prostate cancer must begin at the age of 40-years old.
Other social or lifestyle choices may contribute to increased risk of developing prostate cancer, too.

1 – Your diet may be a factor.  Current available research seems to indicate that a high-fat diet increases prostate cancer risks.  Countries with greater consumption of meat and dairy products show higher rates of the disease.  Countries consuming more rice, vegetables, and soybean-based products have less prevalence of the disease.
2 – Cigarette and tobacco use may increase your likelihood for prostate cancer (and essentially all cancer types).
3 – Excessive use of alcohol may contribute to an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Changing such habits can go a long way towards reducing your risks of acquiring prostate cancer.  Eliminating tobacco use and cutting back on alcohol use helps, too.  Making dietary changes to increase consumption of foods high in lycopene can aid in lowering your risk for prostate cancer.  Taking appropriate multi-vitamins is a plus.
Start exercising!  A sedentary lifestyle can make you more susceptible to many kinds of adverse health situations, yes, including prostate cancer.  You may be able to reduce your risk for prostate cancer by getting regular exercise and maintaining your optimum body weight.
Some common cancer “fast facts about prostate cancer” as offered by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention:  Not counting some forms of skin cancer, prostate cancer in the United States is—

  • The most common cancer in men, no matter your race or ethnicity.
  • The second most common cause of death from cancer among white, African American, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic men.
  • The fourth most common cause of death from cancer among Asian/Pacific Islander men.
  • More common in African-American men compared to white men.
  • Less common in American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian/Pacific Islander men compared to white men.
  • More common in Hispanic men compared to non-Hispanic men.

In 2007 (the most recent year for which numbers are available)—

  • 223,307 men in the United States were diagnosed with prostate cancer.*
  • 29,093 men in the United States died from prostate cancer.*

 

What are the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer? 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Prostate cancer is the most common  cancer in men in the UK and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Each year in the UK approximately 30,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer and 9,500 die from the disease.
Prostate cancer is rare before 50 with the average age of diagnosis around 75 years. The risk is higher in those with a family history and African-Caribbean origin.
Prostate cancers range from very aggressive tumours to slow growing tumours. Slow growing tumours are more common and may not cause any symptoms or shorten life.

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advertisements